Skip to content

Math Expressions

The math expression parser allows to use simple mathematical expressions in combination with if statements inside of the xml files of openCFS. For this user-defined variables can be used

<domain>
  <variableList>
    <var name="A" value="1e6"/>
    <var name="B" value="1500"/>
  </variableList>
</domain>

The registered variables get defined in the global scope and can be used in any expression, which gets parsed by the mathParser. Note however, that for establishing user-defined variables computed variables such as t can not be used. Using user-defined variables for defining an additional user-defined variable however, works.

<domain>
  <variableList>
    <var name="C" value=A*B/>
  </variableList>
</domain>

In addition, the following pre-defined variables can be found in openCFS:

  • t - Current time value, only available for transient simulations
  • dt - Time step size, only available for transient simulations
  • f - Current frequency value, only available for harmonic simulations
  • step - Current time/frequency step, available for harmonic and transient simulations
  • x,y,z - Coordinates
  • r,phi,z - Cylindrical coordinates

Defining loads

Math expressions can be used to define a synthetic load. For the following example a transient acoustic simulation (Singlefield -> AcousticPDE) is considered. The load is impressed onto a certain node, and defined as a sinus function

 <bcsAndLoads>
    <pressure name="excite" value="2*sin(2*pi*100*t)"/>
 </bcsAndLoads>

In this example a sinus load with 100 Hz and an amplitude of 2 is defined. t denotes the control variable. A different possibility for defining such a synthetic load is by using one of the custom functions of openCFS:

  • spike(duration, timeval) - Generates a short spike signal of a given duration starting from 0.
  • fadeIn(duration, mode, timeval) - This function is used to perform a fadein of an excitation. The returned value is between zero and one and has to be used as envelope of the excitation signal (mode: see detailed explanation below)
  • sinBurst(freq, nperiods, nfadein, nfadeout, timeval) - Creates data for a sine burst signal. A sine burst signal denotes a sine that will be active during a certain amount of time until it will be deactivated. Additionally, a fade-in/out can be applied, according to the sin^2 method of the fadeIn to reduce the higher harmonics of the signal.
  • squareBurst(freq, nperiods, bipolar, pwidth, rtime, timeval) - Create data for a square burst signal, which can either be unipolar or bipolar.
  • gauss(mue, sigma, normval, timeval) - Generates a Gaussian curve, which is either normalized to a maximum value of 1 or to having an area of 1.
  • locCoord2D(coordsysid, component, x, y) - This function returns for a point in a 2D cartesian coordinate system one component of a local coordinate system, as defined in the < coordSysList >-section of the < domain >-element (for details, see 4.4). This can be used,e.g. to define loads / dirichlet boundary conditions depending on polar / cylindrical coordinates.
  • locCoord3D(coordsysid, component, x, y,z) - Similar to the function locCoord2D, this method can be used for local 3-dimensional coordinate systems (e.g. cylindrical or spherical).
  • sampled1D(filename, interpolation, sampleval) - This function can be used to read in and interpolate values of a 2-column formatted text file. This can be used e.g. to prescribe space/time/frequency-dependent boundary or load conditions.
  • if(condition, trueval, elseval) - if ... then ... else ...
  • sin(2 * pi * frequency * timeStep)
  • cos(2 * pi * frequency * timeStep)
  • tan(2 * pi * frequency * timeStep)
  • asin(2 * pi * frequency * timeStep)
  • acos(2 * pi * frequency * timeStep)
  • atan(2 * pi * frequency * timeStep)
  • sinh(2 * pi * frequency * timeStep)
  • cosh(2 * pi * frequency * timeStep)
  • tanh(2 * pi * frequency * timeStep)
  • asinh(2 * pi * frequency * timeStep)
  • acosh(2 * pi * frequency * timeStep)
  • atanh(2 * pi * frequency * timeStep)
  • log2( X ) - logarithm to the base 2
  • log10( X ) - logarithm to the base 10
  • log( X ) - logarithm to the base 10
  • ln( n ) - logarithm to base e (2.71828...)
  • exp( X ) - e raised to the power of x
  • sqrt( X ) - square root of a value
  • sign( X ) - sign function -1 if x < 0; 1 if x > 0
  • rint( X ) - round to nearest integer
  • abs( X ) - absolute value
  • min( X ) - min of all arguments
  • max( X ) - max of all arguments
  • sum( X ) - sum of all arguments
  • avg( X ) - mean value of all arguemnts

Additionally, the following built-in operators and constants are available:

  • = - Assigment
  • and - logical and
  • or - logical or
  • xor - logical xor
  • <= or le * - less or equal
  • >= or ge * - greater or equal
  • != - not equal
  • == - equal
  • > or gt * - greater than
  • < ot lt * - less then
  • + - addition
  • - - subtraction
  • * - multiplication
  • / - division
  • ^ - raise to the power of
  • pi or _pi - 3.1415926..
  • _e - Eulerian number e = 2.7182818..

Defining fields

Math expressions can also be used for defining e.g flow, or temperature fields.

 <flowList>
  <flow name="backward_Z"> 
   <comp dof="x" value="0"/>
   <comp dof="y" value="120000/60*2*pi*z"/> 
   <comp dof="z" value="-120000/60*2*pi*y"/>
  </flow>
 </flowList>

This can also be used for defining blending functions, which e.g. necessary for the usage of non-conforming interfaces in combination with aeroacoustic source terms. For more details look into Singlefield -> AcousticPDE

Detailed explanations and examples

Following we will show two different examples for such custom functions:

Spike

spike(duration, timeval)

  • duration -> Duration of spike in s.
  • timeval -> Time parameter at which function gets evaluated. Usually the time variable t is used.

Example for spike signal: spike(1,t-2)

spike

fadeIn

fadeIn(duration, mode, timeval)

  • duration -> The amount of time for which the fade in operation is performed in s.
  • mode -> Three different implementation exist for the envelope of the fade in process:
             mode = 1 (using a sin^2 formulation) 
             mode = 2 (using an exponential formulation exp)
             mode = 3 (using a squared exponential formulation exp^2)
    
    • timeval -> Time parameter at which function gets evaluated. Usually the time variable t is used.

Comparison of 3 fadeIn signals: sin 2 -based (red), exp-based (green) and exp 2 -based (blue):

fadein

sinBurst

sinBurst(freq, nperiods, nfadein, nfadeout, timeval)

  • freq -> Frequency of the sine pulse.
  • nperiods -> Total number of periods of the pulse.
  • nfadein -> Specifies the number of periods that will be used for the transient process. This will realize a kind of ”soft” transient process that will reduce the higher harmonics of the resulting signal.
  • nfadeout -> Specifies the number of periods that will be used for the decay process. This will realize a kind of ”soft” decay process that will reduce the higher harmonics of the resulting signal.
  • timeval -> Time parameter at which function gets evaluated. Usually the time variable t is used.

Sine burst without fade-In: sinBurst(1,6,0,0,t):

sinburst

Sine burst with 2 periods of fade-in/out: sinBurst(1,6,2,2,t)

sinburst2

squareBurst

squareBurst(freq, nperdios, bipolar, pwidth, rtime, timeval)

  • freq -> Frequency of the rectangular signal.
  • nperiods -> Total number of periods of the pulse.
  • bipolar -> Switch for generating bipolar / unipolar signal; 0: unipolar signal (0 ≤ y ≤ 1); 1: bipolar signal (−1 ≤ y ≤ 1)
  • pwidth -> Pulse width of the signal in percent (0 ≤ pw ≤ 100).
  • rtime -> Defines the rise time of the square burst. It denotes the time in seconds that the pulse will take to change from low to high level.
  • timeval -> Time parameter at which function gets evaluated. Usually the time variable t is used.

squareburst

gauss

gauss(mue, sigma, normval, timeval)

  • mue -> Mean value of Gauss curve.
  • sigma -> Variance of Gauss curve.
  • normval -> Type of normalization: 0: Maximum of curve gets normalized to 1; 1: Area of curve gets normalized to 1
  • timeval -> Time parameter at which function gets evaluated. Usually the time variable t is used.

locCoord2

locCoord2D(coordsysid, component, x, y)

  • coordsysid Id -> string of the referred coordinate system.
  • component -> Coordinate component of the local coordinate system, which can be either 1 or 2 in 2D. For a polar coordinate system, 1=r-direction and 2=phi-direction.
  • x -> x-coordinate of the Cartesian point. For < load > and < dirichletInhom > boundary conditions, it can be literally replaced by x.
  • y -> y-coordinate of the Cartesian point. For < load > and < dirichletInhom > boundary conditions, it can be literally replaced by y.

In the following example, a cylindrical coordinate system with id mid is defined. An inhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition for an electrostatic analysis is applied, with a value varying with the angle phi (second component in a polar coordinate system).

<domain>
  <coordSysList>
    <polar id="mid">
      <origin x="0" y="0"/>
      <rAxis x="1" y="0"/>
    </polar>
  </coordSysList>
</domain>
....
<potential name=".." value="locCoord(’mid’,2,x,y)"/>

locCoord3

locCoord3D(coordsysid, component, x, y,z)

  • coordsysid Id -> string of the referred coordinate system.
  • component -> Coordinate component of the local coordinate system, which can be either 1, 2 or in 3D. For a cylindrical coordinate system, 1=r-direction, 2=phi-direction and 3=z-direction.
  • x -> x-coordinate of the Cartesian point. For < load > and < dirichletInhom > boundary conditions, it can be literally replaced by x.
  • y -> y-coordinate of the Cartesian point. For < load > and < dirichletInhom > boundary conditions, it can be literally replaced by y.
  • z -> z-coordinate of the Cartesian point. For < load > and < dirichletInhom > boundary conditions, it can be literally replaced by z.

sample1D

sampled1D(filename, interpolation, sampleval)

  • filename -> Name of the file to be read (any path in the filename is taken relative to the location of the .xml-file). The file must consist of exactly 2 columns, which are separated by any whitespace (space, tab).
  • interpolation -> There are 3 different methods for interpolating the sampled values:

    0: Nearest neighbor is taken (i.e. no interpolation at all)
    1: Linear interpolation
    2: Cubic spline interpolation
    
  • sampleval -> Denotes the sample value (value of the 1st column ), for which a value in the 2nd column is seeked. In most cases either the current time t or a coordinate component (x,y, z) may be used

We can subscribe boundary conditions with values read in from sample files. The notation is as follows:

<bcsAndLoads>
  <potential name="transducer" value="sample1D(’x_amplitude.dat’,x,2)" phase="sample1D(’x_phase.dat’,x,2)"/>
</bcsAndLoads>

Sample data (2 nd column) is read in from the files x amplitude.dat and x phase.dat depending on the current x-coordinate and gets interpolated using cubic spline interpolation. Please note the type of quotes used!!!!

if statement:

 <bcsAndLoads>
    <pressure name="excite" value="(t lt 1)? (cos(2*pi*(t-0.5))+1)*sin(2*pi*t): 0")"/>
 </bcsAndLoads>

Furthermore, it is possible to superpose multiple different custom functions, with e.g. if statements. In the following example we superpose a time depending if statement with a spatial if statement

 <bcsAndLoads>
    <pressure name="exciteSurface" value="((t lt 1)? (cos(2*pi*(t-0.5))+1)*sin(2*pi*t): 0"))*((x lt 1)? (1 : 0))"/>
 </bcsAndLoads>

Hint: With multiple if statements it is especially important to look after the positioning of braces.